The Monistic Theory

by Nhân Tử Nguyễn Văn Thọ

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Chapter 7

Sufism and the Monistic Theory


Let us now approach Sufism, the Islamic mysticism, under its two main aspects, the monistic theory, or the doctrine of the Unity of Being, and mysticism. It serves to demonstrate that Truth is one, and is shared by saints and sages from all creeds, all nations and all ages.

Definitions of Sufism

Religiously, Sufism means, mainly, an interiorization of Islam. It is the inner quest for God, or the inner apprehension of the Divine. Thus Sufism is defined as Islamic mysticism. As we know, mysticism, in its widest sense, may be defined as the consciousness of the One Reality, be it called Allah, Wisdom, Light, Life, Love or Being or even Nothing. It can be termed as "the great spiritual current which goes through all religions". Thus, the final aim of Sufism is to transcend the human condition, to attain the divine status and to be united with God even in this world. In the words of Bayazid Bastami; "A Sufi belongs to the sect of God." [1]

Because the Sufis abandoned external forms and rituals and sang the praise of universal truth which is within the reach of everybody, regardless of creed, color, or nationality, Sufism became a religion which was both international and universal. According to Rumi and, naturally, to all Sufis, the outward rituals in churches, mosques, temples and pagodas are void of any reality, and are the cause of all prejudices, hatred and strife. Sufis tried to attack the hypocritical pretension of the bigoted religionists and to introduce people into the realms of "inner thoughts and values".

They repeatedly asked: "Is God the object of formal worship, or of love? Is the purpose of religion to unite, to comfort, to improve and to bring all races and peoples of the world together in love and brotherhood, or to divide, to tyrannize, to shed the blood of the innocent in futile wars, to inflict tortures to people, to send people to the stake, to mesmerize, to commit all kinds of crimes in the name of God and to exploit our fellowmen?"

To the Sufis, all talk, turmoil, rite, ritual, convention, custom, noise, and desire is outside the unity with God; remove the veil of dualism and one finds joy, silence, beauty, calm and the rest. When self, as well as material world had been cast aside, the perfect man would unite with God.

Sufism is a mystical path: The end is God; the beginning is man in his terrestrial state; the path is inward; the means which link man to God are the spiritual virtues, which alone can make possible the realization of God and which alone can prepare man to become worthy of the exalted station of becoming the total theophany of God's Names and Qualities.

Philosophically, Sufism propounded the Unity of Being. We will develop this theory later on. Now, we can say, roughly, that according to the Sufis, the world is not created by God, but it rather proceeds from God by a process of successive emanation. The world is then the theophany of God. But in time, it will be re-absorbed in God by a process of successive reintegration...

God is everywhere, under the veils of terrestrial and celestial things. While the Islamic orthodoxy represented Allah as having created the world once for all, and then having removed himself to heaven, leaving his creatures to work out their own salvation or condemnation, according to the light given them by the prophets, and taught that God and man were separated by an infinite chasm, the Sufis represented Him as the Sublime Being, immanent and ever working in His creatures, the sum of all existence, the fullness of life, whereby all things move and exist, not only predestining but originating all actions, dwelling in and terminating with each individual soul.

The Sufi believed that he would see his God face to face in everything, and in seeing Him, would become one with Him. In other words, God is immanent in everything.

Therefore, God is not far from man. On the contrary, He is nearer to man than his jugular vein. This view is based on the following Quranic verse: "We indeed created man; and We know what his soul whispers within him, and We are nearer to him than the jugular vein." (Quran 50:16)

Dhul Nun, a Sufi poet, wrote:

"I turn to Thee in my request,

And seek in Thee my final rest;

To Thee alone my loud lament is brought,

Thou dwellest in my secret thought". 

This view entails, naturally, the doctrine of the incarnation of God in man (hulul), as sustained by many great Islamic mystics such as Ibni Arabi (born in Spain in A.D. 1165) and Al-Hallaj (d. in 992).

According to the Sufis, good and evil are inevitably and intimately linked: One must have knowledge of evil in order to perceive the existence of goodness. They looked therefore to a higher good, the Absolute, uncontaminated by association with evil. To be one with ultimate good is to divest oneself of all evil, of all malicious earthly and materialistic influence, and above all, of one's selfish tendencies. It is in self that utter evil resides. We will see that the aim of all Sufis is Fana, or self- negation and re-absorption in God. The mystic path as it exists in Sufism is then one in which man dies to his carnal nature in order to be reborn in divinis and hence to become united with the Truth. The full grown Sufis is thus conscious of being, like other men, a prisoner in the world of forms, but unlike them he, is also conscious of being free, with a freedom which incomparably outweighs his imprisonment. He may therefore be said to have two centers of consciousness, one human and one Divine, and he may speak now from one, and now from the other, which accounts for certain apparent contradictions.

Culturally, Sufism is a message of brotherhood, harmony and hope for mankind. The Sufis, in the words of Hakim Sanai, are looking for the ocean of love and they do not bother with the rivers and canals of conflict and prejudice. Sanai, also said: "Humanity is asleep, concerned only with what is useless, living in a wrong world... Man is wrapping his net around himself. A Sufi bursts his cage asunder."

Morally, Sufism is freedom, generosity, and absence of self-constraint. When Abu Said, one of the leaders of the Sufis, was asked to define the Sufi doctrine, he replied: "It is to lay aside what you have in your head such as pride, prejudice, desire, hostility, greed, arrogance, and hatred; to give away what you have in your hand; and to flinch not from whatever befalls you. The veil between God and thee is neither earth nor heaven, nor the throne nor the footstools; thy selfhood and hate are thy veil, and when thou removest these and replace them by love, thou hast attained unto God."

Thus, to some, the Sufis are dreamers, rebels, and meddlers who interfere with the rituals of the church and the business of the state. To others, it connotes humanitarism, tolerance, harmony, contempt of the superficial rituals, love of mankind, and the attempt to achieve spiritual fellowship. According to Professor Nasrollah S. Eatemi, Sufi "movement was expressed in outward form as a protest against the formalism of orthodoxy in Islam,and gradually developed into a rebellion of a sick, materialist society. Sufism was an antithesis of arrogance, intolerance, demagogism, hypocrisy and inhumanity. The Sufis' purpose was to create a renaissance of man's spirit, through which he might see how egoism, greed, pride, and strife are folly and that the universe is spiritual, and that men are the sons of God." Indries Shah wrote: 

The Sufi law of life requires:

Kindness to the young

Generosity to the poor

Good counsel to friends

Forbearance with enemies

Indifference to fools

Respect to the learned. [2] 

In sum, "Sufism is one such path, placed by God within the bosom of Islam in order to provide the possibility of spiritual realization for the millions of men who over the ages have followed and continue to follow the religion of the Quran. In its essence it joins the paths of spiritual realization found in other traditions while in its formal aspect it shares the genius and the particular features of Islam. It is the path within Islam that leads from the particular to the Universal, from multiplicity to Unity, from form to the supra-formal Essence. Its function is to enable man to realize Divine Unity (al-tawhid), the truth which has always been and will always be."

"The keynote of Sufism," according to Reynod Nicholson, "is disinterested, selfless devotion, in a word, love. The whole of Sufism is a protest against the unnatural divorce between God and man."

The Sufi teaches this simple truth that the basis of all faith or imam is unity, for as Shaykh Mahmud Shabistari writes in his Gulshan-i-raz:

See but One, say but One, know but One,

In this are summed up the roots and branches of faith. [3] 

The Unity of Being

Sufism professes the Unity of Being. This monistic theory is linked with the statement of belief, 'There is no God but God', and the Quranic verse, 'Say, God is One'(112:1). Strictly speaking, the world is not a creation ex nihilo by God, but rather a theophany, an emanation from God.

"In Sufism, there is the fundamental concept of God as not only All Mighty and All Good, but as the sole source of Being and Beauty and, indeed, the one Beauty and the one Being, in whom is submerged whatever becomes apparent, and, by whose light, whatever is apparent is made manifest."

Seyyed Hosseinnasn, in his Sufi Essays, asserts: "The metaphysical aspect of the (Sufi) doctrine delineates firstly the nature of Reality, the Oneness of the Divine Essence which alone 'is' in the absolute sense and prior to which there is nothing; then the theophany of the Essence through the Divine Names and Qualities and through the determination of the different states of being; and finally the nature of man as the total theophany (tajalli) of the Names and Qualities. The doctrine of unity or tawhid forms the axis of all Sufi metaphysics and it is in fact the misunderstanding of this cardinal doctrine that has caused so many orientalists to accuse Sufism of pantheism. Sufi doctrine does not assert that God is the world but that the world to the degree that it is real cannot be completely other than God. [4]

The early Sufis were ascetics and quietists rather than mystics. However, in the ninth century they developed an ecumenical doctrine linked with the ideas of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Neoplatonism and Islam, an ecumenical doctrine which showed striking similarities even with Taoism and Confucianism, as we will demonstrate it later on.

Sufism thus showed that it regarded all religions as more or less "perfect shadowing forth of the great central truth which it seeks fully to comprehend and consequently it recognizes all of them as good in proportion to the measure of truth which they contain." The practical aim was to escape from the subjective self, the empirical self and, until this lesson was learned, no advances toward Truth could be made. Even today, Sufis regard God as identical with pure Being. For them, everything is the theophany of God, the manifestation, the expression of God; everything represents God, though for laymen, everything is rather a veil of God. A Sufi may be described as one who conceives of religion as an experience of eternity - one who holds that the soul, even in this life, can unite itself with the Divine. He calls himself Ahl al-Haq, the man of the Truth.

In Ibni Arabi (born in Spain in A.D. 1165), we find an elaboration of the doctrine of Monism. The fundamental principle of his system is the Unity of Being: "There is no real difference between the Essence and its attributes or, in other words, between God and the Universe."

This view was shared by other Sufi mystics. Let us quote Dhul Nun (d. 861), another Sufi mystic:

O God, I never hearken to the voices of the beasts or the rustle of the trees, the splashing of waters or of the songs of the birds, the whistling of the wind or the rumble of thunder, but I sense in them a testimony to thy unity [Wahdanyya], and a proof of thy Incomparableness; that thou art the all-prevailing, the all-knowing, the all-wise, the all just, the all true, and in Thee neither overthought nor ignorance nor folly nor injustice nor lying.

O God I acknowledge Thee in the proof of Thy handiwork and in evidence of Thy acts... [5]  

Sufis often refer to the saying 'God spreads the scrolls upon the heavens until man learns to read them. Once he can read them, he can roll up the scrolls and put them away.' The cosmos, known to the mystics as veil, as allusion, and as separation, is referred to in the Quranic verse, 'We shall show them our symbols in the horizons and in themselves, until it be made known to them that it is the Truth' (41:53)

The cosmos has two aspects. Known through the Tradition 'God created seventy thousand veils of Light and Darkness', the first is expressed in the statement that the universe is not God. The universe is relative, transient, changing; therefore it is otherness, separateness, a veil which separates us from God. In its other aspect, the universe is none other than God, because it is the universe which reveals the Divinity.

Therefore, the cosmos both hides and reveals, veils and makes manifest. To the Sufi, the world is transparent, because he sees the transcendent significance of physical things. For the Sufi, the journey to God begins with an awakening to the concept that the phenomenal world is a veil which conceals the Divine. We begin the quest by removing the veil, only to become aware that the veil and the Divine are one and the same thing. The veil is the theophany itself: the manifestation of the Divine through Its Names and Qualities. When we see the veil, we are seeing nothing but the Divine.

The act of creation is rather an act of emanation, of Self-expression. But why should an Absolute and Infinite Reality express Itself? Sufism answers: 'For Knowledge of Self.' Each form re-expressed, recalled, remembered, is so that It may come to know Self.

Since the Divine is Infinite, Knowledge of Self is part of Its Infiniteness. Being Infinite and Absolute, containing the totality of possibilities, It must include the possibility of negating Self and bringing the relative into being. Therefore the world exists because God is Infinite.

In this connection it is not irrelevant to mention that one of the sayings of the Prophet that is most often quoted by the Sufis is the following 'Holy Tradition' (hadith qudusi), so called because in it God speaks directly: 'I was a Hidden Treasure and I wished to be known, and so I created the world.'

The Godhead in its unmanifest quality is above every quality we could ascribe to It. This is the Divine Essence about which one can say nothing, for any description would only serve to limit or bind It. Divine Essence manifests Itself, however, in the direction of Creation through stages, the first of which is the Archetypes, the possibilities contained within the Absolute.

Divine emanation is a twofold process: intelligible and sensible. The first emanation brings the Archetypes into intelligible existence. Known as the Divine Names and Qualities, these Archetypes are the possibilities contained within the Absolute. This stage of emanation is conceived of as the One (Ahadiyyah) moving towards Oneness (Wahidiyyah); the Archetypes are noumena, forms which are outwardly and actually intelligible, but inwardly and potentially sensible.

The second stage of emanation occurs when the shadows of the Archetypes reach the world of symbols, and the shadows of the world of symbols reach the phenomenal world. The phenomenal world is a manifestation of these higher worlds and reflects the splendor of multiplicity.

The phenomenon is a form which is outwardly and actually sensible: It can be grasped by the five outer senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Outward forms act as sensible containers for the Archetypes, which are in turn intelligible containers for aspects of the Absolute.

The Absolute manifests Itself in the phenomenal world as if from the Center to the periphery. The whole universe then can be schematized by a set of concentric circles. The Center represents the Godhead; and the successive circles respectively stand the World of Archetypes, the World of Symbols, and finally the world of phenomena. This schema can also be used to figure Man or the microcosm. Thus the Center, represents the Divine Essence, and the concentric circles represent successively the Spirit, the Soul and the Body .

This schema is very useful, because it speaks to our visual sense. Thus when we say that we should move inward to find God, we see it immediately. We realize also that moving outwardly is moving toward materiality. The material state is outside; the spiritual state is inside. The theomorphic kernel of man is at the center of man's being. Thus the profound and real nature of man lies beneath the layers of dross that the passage of the ages and the gradual removal of man from his original perfection have imposed upon that Divine Center.

This schema help us understand why Abu Yazid Bastami has said: "When God recognized my sincerity, the first grace that He accorded me was that he removed the chaff of the self from before me." [6]

This schema shows us that we should destroy the outer crust of our being, to reveal to us our own divine center. Also with the help of this schema, we can make the cosmos and all that it contains transparent so that the infinite content becomes revealed through the finite form.

In this manner we can achieve the goal of the mystical quest, a goal which is perennially sought since, as already explained, it lies within the depth of human existence itself.

To him, whose soul attains the beatific vision,

The universe is the book of 'The Truth Most High'.

Accidents are its vowels, and substance its consonants,

And grades of creatures its verses and pauses.

                                                (Shaykh Mahmud Shabistari) [7]

In sum, the mystical path is the journey of the soul from the outward to the inward, from the periphery to the Center, from the form to the meaning. And because of the intimate relation the soul possesses with the cosmos, this journey is at once a penetration to the center of the soul and a migration to the abode beyond the cosmos. In both places, which are in reality but a single locus, resides the Divine Presence, the Presence which is at once completely our-Self and totally other than our self. [8]


The Sufi's conception of man is based on these two Quranic verses:

"Surely We created man of the best stature (ahsan taqwim)

Then we reduced him to the lowest of the low (asfal safilin)

                                                                                    (Quran XCV,4-5)

Thus the innermost or the true nature of man is divine, while the outer layer of man is the terrestrial crust or the human appearance. The theomorphic innermost nature of man is his permanent reality, his divine origin, unchanged through ages. The terrestrial crust, or the outer human appearance, contains transient and passing elements and is characterized by wretchedness and misery due to the state of separatedness from his spiritual origin.

The outer human layer encompasses the mutable sphere of the psyche, such as thoughts, emotions and ego-consciousness. It is the bounded ego, the personality, i.e. the mask of the true Self. It is enmeshed in the time-space cosmic pattern and under the pressure of material existence, under the bondage and the limitations of matter.

The inner divine layer is beyond, behind and above all the apparent changes, endowed with all powers and faculties, freedom of choice, and potentialities to help man achieve his own final goal of Bliss, Perfection and Immortality.

Thus man carries both the image of perfection and the experiential certainty of separation within himself, and these elements remain as permanent aspects and conditions of the human state above and beyond all historical changes and transformations.

In other words, there are two poles in man. On one pole, there is his theomorphic nature, his essential world; on the other pole there is his terrestrial crust, his phenomenal world, which covers and hides his spiritual core. We can say that in man, the Human serves as a veil which conceals the Divine. We will see that for Sufis, the journey to God begins with the removal of this human veil.

This view can explain the human paradox: Living in the bondage of the finite and of the limited, man is always seeking to transcend this world of finitude and transiency, and to find the Infinite Reality which can deliver him from the realm of mortality and of servitude. Man cannot remain man without seeking the Infinite and without wanting to transcend himself. To be human means to want to transcend the merely human.

Man seeks his psychic and spiritual needs outwardly precisely because he does not know who he is. Sufism reminds man to seek all that he needs inwardly within himself, to tear his roots from the outer world, and plunge them into the Divine Nature, which resides at the center of his heart. Sufism removes man from his lowly state of asfal saphilin in order to reinstate him in his primordial perfection of ahsan taqwim wherein he finds within himself all that he had sought outwardly, for being united with God he is separate from nothing. [9]

Ordinary man is forever moving away from the center of his being towards the periphery, dispersing himself in the multiplicity of this world like waves that break up into a thousand drops against the rocks of the sea-shore. This outward-going tendency must be checked and reversed so that man may live inwardly, with his reactions and tendencies moving towards the center rather than towards the rim; for at the Center resides the One, the Pure and Ineffable Being which is the source of all beatitude and goodness, whereas at the periphery is non-existence, which only appears to be real because of man's illusory perception and lack of discrimination. [10]

The mystic path as it exists in Sufism is one in which man dies to his carnal nature in order to be reborn in divinis and hence to become united with the Truth. [11] 


To attain the divine status is to realize the Universal Prototype. The Universal Prototype is the prototypical human form. It is God's own image. The Universal Prototype should unite the inward, eternal aspect of reality with the onward, phenomenal aspect. The Universal Prototype comprehends all individualities and unites all opposites in the infinite nature of Self. All Divine Qualities are united and displayed. At this moment the multiplicity of the soul (the sensory and the psychic forces) disappears and the vision of Unity fills the emptied soul. This is when one sees God in Oneness. The ultimate meaning of the Unity of Being is 'to see things as they really are': to realize that all is reflected in the mirror of one's own being. It is the dissolution of the profane consciousness of man who sees all things as independent of God: to realize that one was never separate from God; that God in His Oneness is both immanent and transcendent. This universal prototype is realized by Muhammad, the Prophet, according to Sufis. But we can say that the founder of every religion is the Universal Prototype, the Universal Logos. This Universal Prototype is also realized by all mystical saints of all religions in the world.

The Prophet is an individual who, in form, manifests all the possibilities of humanity. By marrying and having children, he expresses his human nature. Through his receiving the revelation, he is the receptacle of Divine Nature. The Prophet, referring to this aspect of himself, has said, 'I am Ahmad without the m [Ahad means Unity]; I am an 'arab without the r [rabb means Lord]; who had seen me hath seen the Truth'.

The possibility of becoming the Universal Prototype exists potentially for all Muslims. The difference between one who is awakened and one who remains asleep, and the difference in the levels attained by the awakened, depends upon what Sufis call preparedness.


Each Sufi seeks to become the Universal Prototype. In other words, each Sufi seeks to become united with God, even in this life. He does not live by himself, but God lives in Him. This final station can be described by the Sacred Tradition in which God says, 'My servant never ceases drawing nigh unto Me, and when my servant does so, I become the Hearing by which he hears, the Seeing by which he sees, the Hand by which he seizes and the Foot by which he walks.' The Sufi 'witnesses' when in full consciousness of the Divine Presence.

One can live a divine life, when one ceases to think that a separate life from God is possible, that one can find any reality outside God; when one can gather all multiplicity into unity; when one realizes that God is the coincidence of opposites: transcendence and immanence, inward and outward, essence and phenomena, Divine and veils, divine and humane, all coalesce in an infinite harmonious Wholeness. All these ideas stem from Quranic verses:

'Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth' (XXIV,35)

'There is no God but He; everything is perishing except His Face'(XXVIII,88). 'He is the first, the last and the outward and the inward'(LVII,3)

'I have breathed unto him (man) of my spirit' (XV,30)

'Verily, We have created man, and We know what his soul suggests to him, for We are higher unto him than the neck artery (or jugular vein) (L,15)

'Wherever ye turn, there is the Face of Allah' (II, 109)

'He to whom Allah giveth no light hath no light at all' (XXIV, 40)

It is natural to see why the early Sufis considered the Quran not only as the Word of God, but also as the primary means of drawing man near to Him.

According to Hallaj, God, who, in essence, is love, created Man after His image to the end that His creature, loving Him alone, may suffer a spiritual transformation, find the divine image in himself, and thus attain to union with the divine will and nature. His doctrine of hulul, or of incarnation really infers that all human being is potentially a God incarnate, and can become a God incarnate, if he can realize his divine and real Self. And if 'all manifestation should return whence it has come', according to the Monistic theory, all man, as manifestation of God, as aspect of God, should return to God; being non-existent, for actually only God exists, man can exist only through God's existence. Sufism, if well understood, preaches the greatness of man: Sufi saints see that God incarnates himself in man, but does not share the Christian point of view that only Jesus Christ is God incarnate. The Quran also considered Jesus Christ only as a messenger of God, and not as the only begotten Son of God.

Say, 'He is God alone! God the Eternal! He begets not and is not begotten! Nor is there like unto Him any one!' (CXII)

They misbelieve who say, 'Verily, God is the Messiah, the son of Mary;' but the Messiah said, 'O children of Israel! worship God, my Lord and your Lord' (V,72 or V,77)


In the Legacy of Islam, we read: '...The typical saint is no longer one who has sought God with prayer and aspiration and found Him, after sore travail, in the transfiguration of dying to self through and inexplicable act of grace depending on nothing but the personal will of the Creator; he is rather the complete theosophist and hierophant from whom no mystery is hidden, the perfect man who identifies himself with God or the Logos. 

I was on that day when the Names were not,

Nor any sign of existence endowed with name.

By me Names and Named were brought to view

On the day when there were not 'I' and 'we'. 

...It may be well to state briefly the philosophical theory which underlies it.

'The Essence of God is all that really exists; His attributes are distinguished from Him in thought, but in reality are not other than He. The aggregate of divine attributes, which we call the universe, is the ever-changing kaleidoscope wherein He displays Himself, and is real in so far as He is reflected in it. Phenomena per se are not-being; they acquire a contingent existence from the efflux of Absolute Being by which they are irradiated. The position and function of man in the scheme of things' become clear. 'In him the spiritual and physical worlds meet, and he stands at the center of the universe of which he is the soul. But on his phenomenal side he is 'black with the darkness of not-being'; his bodily affections hold him in bondage, so that he thinks he is separate from God. That illusion, though supported by sense and reason, contradicts the first principle of the Sufi philosophy, which teaches that all existence and all action is the manifestation of divine energy...'

Sufism is one such path, placed by God within the bosom of Islam, to help Islamic people transcend the finite and reach the Infinite. In its essence, it joins the path of spiritual realization found in other traditions, while in its formal aspect it shares the genius and the particular features of Islam. It is the path within Islam that leads from the particular to the Universal, from multiplicity to Unity, from form to the Supra-formal Essence. Its function is to enables man to realize Divine Unity. The mystic path as it exists in Sufism is one in which man dies to his carnal and psychic nature to be reborn in divinis and hence to become united with the Truth, videlicet with God. To use the technical words, in Abu Yazid of Bistam 's parlance, the passing away of the self is called fana, and the unitive life in God is called baqa. The Sufi mystical quest begins with man, in his terrestrial state and ends in the bosom of God.

Khwajah Abdullah Ansari wrote:

The heart enquired of the soul

What is the beginning of this business?

What its end, and what its fruit?

The soul answered:

The beginning of it is

The annihilation of self

Its end, faithfulness,

And its fruit, Immortality. [12]

 To understand Sufism, one should be familiar with the Theory of Emanation, sustained by Al-Ghazzali, with the 'Transcendent Unity of Being and its Theophany through the contingent existence of all things in the Universe, with the doctrine of the Universal or Perfect Man who is centrally and axially located, so that he reflects the Divine Names and Qualities in a total and conscious manner, and, finally, with the Mystical Quest and Mystical Life practiced and professed by all Sufi Saints which recalls us that man was made for immortality and that his intelligence was created to grasp the Absolute.

The keynote of Sufism, according to Reynold Nicholson, "is disinterested selfless devotion, in a word, love. The whole of Sufism is a protest against the unnatural divorce between God and man."


[1] Sufi Studies East & West, Ed. by Pr. L. F. Rushbrook Williams, E. P. Dutton & Co Inc. 1973, N. Y. p. 47.

[2] Sufi Studies East and West, Edited by Pr. L. F. Rushbrook Williams, E.P.Dutton & Co Inc. 1973, New York p. 46.

[3] Mystic Rose Garden, pp. 84, 85.

[4] Sufi Essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 45.

[5] Sufi Studies East & West, Ed. by Pr. L. F. Rushbrook Williams, E. P. Dutton & Co Inc. 1973, N. Y. p. 51.

[6] Sufi essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 34.

[7] Sufi essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 29.

[8] Sufi Essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 29.

[9] Sufi essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 33.

[10] Ibidem, p. 49.

[11] Sufi Essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasm, p. 34.

[12] Sufi Essays, Seyyed Hosseinnasn, p. 34.

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