The Monistic Theory

by Nhân Tử Nguyễn Văn Thọ

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Chapter 15

Brahmanism and the Monistic Theory (II)


We can say immediately that the Monistic Theory is the basis of all the Indian Sacred Books: Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita. The main philosophical question that Indian seers pose is: Where does this universe come from? With what substance is it made? From whence does man come? How can he live? Who directs him? Et cetera.

Indian seers believe in Cosmic Unity. It means that everything in this world springs forth from one source, that is, the Supreme Being.

"In the beginning there was Existence, One only, without a second. Some say that in the beginning there was non-existence only, and that, out of that, the universe was born. But how could such a thing be? How could existence be born of non-existence? No, my son, in the beginning there was Existence alone - one only, without a second. He, the One, thought to himself: Let me be many, let me grow forth. Thus, out of himself he projected the universe; he entered in every being. All that is has itself in him alone. Of all thing he is the subtle essence. He is the truth. He is the Self. And that, Svetaketu, THAT ART THOU". [1]

Indian sages conceived that the soul of man, his Atman, is identical to Brahman. Brahman is the Universal Spirit, while Atman is the true Self of each individual. Atman and Brahman are identical. We can find our Atman in our innermost heart by stripping off everything external, that is to say, by introspection. We can find Brahman, the power which presents itself to us materialized in all existing things, which creates, sustains, preserves, and receives back into itself all worlds also by introspection, and generalization. We will find that, at last, Brahman is equal to the Atman, our most essential being, our individual self, the soul.

Thus, all the thoughts of the Upanishads move around these two fundamental ideas. These are (1) the Brahman, and (2) the Atman, The Brahman, conceived as the cosmic principle of the universe, the Atman as the psychical, the Self in our innermost heart. But the Brahman, in the last resort, is equal to the Atman. So the fundamental thought of the Upanishads may be expressed by this equation:

Brahman = Atman.

Or by this great saying:

"Tat Tvam Asi", "That Art Thou" (Chand. 6,7 f.)


aham brahma asmi, "I am Brahman" (Brih. 1.4.10).

These ideas are plainly expressed, such as found in the Chandogya Upanishad. (Chandogya Upanishad. 6.10 1, 2, 3), (Philosophical Language):

"These rivers, my dear, flow, the eastern toward the east, the western toward the west. They go just from the ocean to the ocean. They become the ocean itself. As there they know not "I am this one", "I am that one", even so, indeed my dear, all creatures here, though they have come forth from Being, know not "we have come forth from Being." Whatever they are in this world, whether tiger, or lion, or wolf, or boar, or worm, or fly, or gnat, or mosquito, that they become.

That which is the finest essence - this whole world has that as its soul. That is Reality. that is Atman (soul). That Art Thou, Svetaketu. (Chandogya Upanishad,-6. 10. 1,2,3).or expressed in metaphor (Metaphorical Language):


As a spider ejects and retracts (the threads),

As the plants shoot forth on the earth,

As the hairs on the head and body of the living man,

So from the Imperishable, all that is here.

As the sparks from the well-kindled fire,

In nature akin to it, spring forth in their thousands;

So, my dear sir, from the Imperishable

Living beings of many kinds go forth,

And again return into him. [2]


Or expressed in Mythologies. (Mythological Language).

A late Rig Vedic hymn describes the creation of the world as a dismemberment of a cosmic man, Purusa, in a primeval sacrifice, and, from the parts of his body, were made the cosmos and the four classes of the society, the Brahmin, emanating from his mouth, the Ksatriya (kingly and warrior class) from his arms, the Vaisya (merchants) from his thighs, the Sudra (low caste) from his feet.(Rig Veda, X, 90) [3]

Instead of Purusha, The Rig Veda uses also the term Prajapati. [4]

The myth of the dismemberment of the Primeval Man into the world in India has its counterpart in many others countries, such as the myth of Bangu in China, of Ymir in ancient Scandinavia), of Yima in Iran, of Uranus in Greece, of Tiamat in Babylonia or of Mbombo of Center and Southern Africa et cetera.

Finally, it can be expressed symbolically in the forms of yantras or mandalas (Symbolical Language).

We find in these mandalas the point, or bindu, serving as a center, the triangle, the circle, and the square.

The bindu can be considered as "an ultimate figure beyond which energy cannot be condensed. It is an appropriate symbol of the first principle, the One. Therefore, the bindu is a 'Whole', or 'Full' (purna), the undifferentiated, all-embracing reservoir of the infinite. With these associations, the bindu symbol is viewed in cosmological term, as the creative matrix of the universe, the 'world-seed' (visva-bija), the point of origin and return of cosmological processes. Metaphysically, the bindu represent the unity of the static (male, Siva) and the kinetic (female, Sakti) cosmic principles, which expand to create the infinite universe of matter and spirit". [5]

Whereas the bindu is the gathering-up of forces, the circle represents the cyclical forces, the contraction and expansion of astronomical revolution, and the round of cosmic rhythms. [6]

Most frequent are the diagrams formed by inter-penetration of two triangles, to form a star-hexagon: the upward pointing 'male' and the downward pointing 'female' generate the concept of the fusion of polarities, the male and female, spirit and matter, the static and the kinetic in a perfect state of unity. The numerical equivalent of this figure is 6. [7]

Similarly, the astakona (a figure with eight angles) results from the superposition of square on square; its allusion is to the number 8, a sign of infinity and associated with the eight directions of space and the endless cycle of time. [8]

"The square is the fundamental format of most yantras. It is the substratum, the receptacle and base of the manifest world. The square denotes the terrestrial world which must be transcended. Its prosaic regularity is contained by the compass points of the four cardinal directions, and its numerical equivalent is 4.

Four is a symbol of the world extended into four directions, uniting in its horizontal and vertical directions pairs of opposites, and representing the totality of space. The square is the form of order and perfection, the 'support' of the yantra figure". [9]

In sum, all Yantra or Mandala tend to suggest only one thing: the return to the center. 'Such a return shifts the center of the personality from a fragmented awareness of his ego-centric consciousness to cosmo-centric wholeness, and brings about the union of the individual and cosmic consciousness (Siva-Sakti). It means the death of the profane self, the perishable phenomenal ego, and a rebirth to an eternal deathless state of being'. [10]

In our body, we can find this center. It is located in the top of our head, in the place called the city of Brahman, or the heart, or the little house having the shape of a lotus. It is also commonly named as the Sahasrara Chakra, the seat of the Absolute (Siva-Sakti).

Now, we call it: The Third Ventricle.

"Within the city of Brahman, which is the body, there is the heart, and within the heart there is a little house. This house has a shape of a lotus, and within it dwells that which is to be sought after, and inquired about, and realized.

What, then, is that which dwells in this house, this lotus of the heart?

Even so large as the universe outside is the universe within the lotus of the heart. Within it are heaven and earth, the sun, the moon, the lightning and all the stars. Whatever is in macrocosm is in this microcosm.

Though old age comes to the body, the lotus of the heart does not grow old. It does not die with the death of the body. the lotus of the heart, where Brahman resides with all his glory - that, and not the body, is the true city of Brahman." [11]

The lotus of the heart, the bindu, can finally be equated with the sound-syllable Om, with its associations with the universe in all its manifestations. "In the Brhadaranyaka Up. (2,1.19) there is a metaphor of a spider sitting at the center of the web, issuing and reabsorbing its threads in concentric circles, all held at one point..."This apparently single metaphor also condenses the essence of the Indian thought: all existence is governed by a single principle, and the point of origin of the supreme consciousness is simultaneously an infinite reservoir of collective energy, from which everything issues, and into which everything returns. This Center is the One, "the potential All-point" which not only serves as a bridge but is Cosmic Unity underlying the physical diversity of the world...". [12]

In sum, we see that Indian seers frequently use the symbol of the Center and concentric circles to represent the world.

" The bindu, sacred point of origin and return, with concentric circles symbolized the eternal cycles of cosmic evolution and involution. The goal of the adept is his own involution to the center, the ultimate point of psycho-cosmic integration, where he discovers his link with the Whole." [13]

Man, every man, is destined to become one with the Whole. This implies that we should evolve from the "unreal self" to the state of eternal union, or "true self". This can be done only in many lives. This is why Hinduism postulates the 'Transmigration' of the souls. Hinduism admits also that everything happened to us in our life depends on what we have done in this life or in our past life. This is called the law of Karma.

Thus, for a Hindu, the goal of life is to find truth, is the quest for the real, for the unity of the diversified world, in brief, for the key of the universe. Many of us know already these three verses of the Brih. Up. 1,3,28:

'From the unreal lead me to the real.

From darkness lead me to the light.

From death lead me to immortality.'


Everything is contained already in our body; the entire universe is already in this; we have not to find anywhere the topic of our study:

In your body is Mount Meru

encircled by the seven continents;

the rivers are there too,

the seas, the mountains, the plains,

and the gods of the fields.

Prophets are to be seen in it, monks,

places of pilgrimage

and the deities presiding over them.

The stars are there, and the planets,

and the sun together with the moon;

there too are the two cosmic forces:

that which destroys, that which creates;

and all the elements: ether,

air and fire, water and earth.

Yes, in your body are all things

that exist in the three worlds,

all performing their prescribed functions

around Mount Meru;

He alone who knows this

is held to be a true yogi. [14]


All this view reminds us these verses of Elizabeth Barrett Browning:

"Earth's crammed with heaven,

And every common bush afire with God,

But only he who sees takes off his shoes."


According to the Upanishads, the Real Self in man, is God; Atman is Brahman. Everything external is considered as not-self, or Maya, or Illusion, or Avidya, or Samsara, or Prakriti. This reminds us of the theory of Parmenides, of Plato, of Kant and of Schopenhauer. According to Parmenides, this entire universe of change is merely phenomenal. Plato considered it as a world of shadows. In the phraseology of Kant, they are not "things in themselves" but only apparitions. For the Hindus, the "I" is a delusion, the individual is merely phenomenal, and the only reality is the Infinite One - "That art Thou". For Schopenhauer," Whoever is able to say this to himself, with regard to every being with whom he comes in contact," - "Whoever is clear-eyed and clear-souled enough to see that we are all members of one organism, all of us little currents in an ocean of will, - "he is certain of all virtue and blessedness, and is on the direct road to salvation". [15]

The Upanishads urged us toward self-fulfillmentt. It means that we should realize our Essence. Is it not the theory of entelechy that Aristotle professed?

So we must advance, penetrating deeper and deeper into the kernel of the living being, to the self of life, of mind and of knowledge.

In the kernel of our life, we will see our metaphysical I, our divine self, persisting in untarnished purity through all the aberrations of human nature, eternal blessed, - in a word, our Atman.

I would like to repeat after Troy Wilson Organ, author of The Hindu Quest for the Perfection of Man, that "there are no opinions required to be held in order to be a Hindu, unless it be the notion that Man-the-Less must become Man-the-More, that man is the deity -in-posse: "O man you are born for perfection" sang an ancient sage. [16]

And it also recalls me of this verse of the Svetasvatara Upanishad: "That Eternal which rests in the Self should be known. Truly there is nothing beyond this to be known." [17]

Hinduism as Mysticism

We have said that everything in this world come from one Cosmic Stuff. Be it called as Supreme Being, or Ultimate Reality, or Brahman, we must know that this world is created by the Substance of this Ultimate Reality and not ex nihilo, not 'from nothing'. This is the doctrine of universal immanence of an intellectual monism. The Brihad Aranyaka Up. said: "As all the spokes are held together in the hug and felly of a wheel, just so in this Soul all things, all gods, all worlds, all breathing things, all shelves are held together". It also said: "As the spider might come out with his thread, as small sparks come forth from the fire, even so from this Soul come forth all vital energies (prana), all worlds, all gods, all beings". (Brihad Aranyaka Up.2.1.20). Monism is then the ruling conception of the world, for the world is identical with Atman. "Atman alone is the whole world." (Chand. 7.25.2). [18]

If the Eternal is a man, the world is then his members (Rig Veda X, 90). If the Eternal is a spider, the world will be the threads coming out of its body (Brihad Aranyaka Up. 2. 1. 20). If the Eternal is the earth, the world will be herbs arising from it (Mundaka Up. 1,7). The Eternal and the world are like salt and water. When salt is dissolved in the water, where is water, there is salt. (Chand. Up. 6,13; 1,3).

With these notions in mind, the mystics can have two ways of thinking:

(1) Or they consider Brahman as the whole world. "Brahma, indeed, is this immortal. Brahma before, Brahma behind, to right and to left. Stretched forth below and above, Brahma, indeed is this whole world" (Mundaka Up. 2. 11). "Om! This syllable is this whole world. Its further explanation is: The past, the present, the future - everything is just the word Om. And whatever else that transcends three-fold time - that, too, is just the word Om. For truly, everything here is Brahma. This self (Atman) is Brahma." (Mandukya Upa. 1. 1 - Taittirya Up, 1.8.1). "As fire (Agni) he warms. He is the sun (Surya). He is the beautiful rain (Parjanya). He is the wind (Vayu). He is the earth, matter (rayi), God (deva). Being (sat) and non-Being (asat), and what is immortal. (Prasna Up. 2.5)." He entered in here, even to the fingernail-tip, as a razor in a razor case, or fire in a fire holder (i.e. the fire-wood) (Brih. Up. 1.4. 7)

(2) Or they consider Brahman, or Atman as the core, the kernel of everything. "This Soul of mine, within the heart is smaller than a grain of rice, or a barley-corn, or a mustard-seed or a grain of millet, or the kernel of a grain of millet; this Soul of mine within the heart is greater than the earth, greater than the atmosphere, greater than the sky, greater than these worlds." (Chand. Up. 3.14.3). "He is your soul, which is in all things... Explain to me him who is just the Brahma present and not beyond our ken, him who is the Soul in all things" (Brih. Up. 3.4.2). "He is your Soul, the Inner Controller, The Immortal (Brih. 3. 7. 7. See also Brih, 3. 7, Chand. Up. 6, 12, 3 and 6, 13, 3). "Verily, Kapya, he who knows that thread and the so-called Inner Controller knows Brahma, he knows the worlds, he knows the gods, he knows the Vedas, he knows created things, he knows the Soul, he knows everything,"(Brihah Aranyaka Up. 7,1). "He is the key to all knowledge. "(The thirteen principal Upanishads translated from the Sanskrit, by Robert Ernest Hume p. 30). "That supreme object is just this Brahma, this Atman, who is in the world, who is the Great Self, the ground of oneself. He is the highest object of knowledge." (Ib. p. 30). "That Art Thou" (Chand. Up. 6.8. 16)

"Reality is One. Diversity and manifestations are only an appearance." (The Thirteen Principal Upanishads translated from the Sanskrit, by Robert Ernest Hume, p. 36).

"There is on earth no diversity.

He gets death after death,

Who perceives here seeming diversity.

As a unity only is It to be looked upon

This indemonstrable enduring Being"

                         (Brih. 4.4. 19-20)


" The Inner Soul (Antaratman) of all things...

Who makes his one form manifold" (Katha 5,12)

According to the Kathaka Upa. 3.1, the Supreme and the individual self are distinguished as light and shadow, and according to 2.23, the knowledge of the Atman depends upon a kind of free grace:

Only by the man whom he chooses is he comprehended,

To him the Atman reveals his essence. 

(Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, 1966, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, p. 177)

In the S'vetas'vatara, God and the Soul, though their original identity is not denied, are clearly distinguished from one another. In S'vetas'vatara 4. 6,7 it is said:

Two bright-feathered bosom friends

Flit around one and the same tree;

One of them tastes the sweet berries,

The other, without eating, merely gazes down.

On such a tree the spirit, depressed,

In its weakness mourns, a prey to illusion,

Yet when it gazes worshipping on the might

And majesty of the other, then its grief departs.

(Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 177)

" Hinduism quests for reality and for spirituality. Spirituality is the striving for realities and values which always elude man. Spirituality is self-transcendence. The spiritual is the Perfecting of Man, the Divinizing (sic) of Man, for in Hinduism, the metaphysical axiological principles of divinity and humanity tend to blend into one another. Hinduism deifies man and humanizes God. The spiritual man is the man in process toward the god-man.". [19]

Man as a self is a thing aspiring to Being. Man becomes what he is. his is-ness is his becoming. He is a becoming, not a being. His "being" is becoming-ness. his is-ness is in process such that he never is the finality of beast or god. He creatively discovers what he is, and he discovers creatively what he can become. The self is always infinitely more than it would be if it were only what it is. [20]

"To find God, man must looked inside. "The yogi is testing an hypothesis: that the deepest truth is opened only to those who turn their attention inward, and in this experiment the physical senses, so useful elsewhere, can be nothing but busy-bodies. "the senses turn outward," observe the Upanishads. "man therefore, looks toward what is outside, and sees not the inward being. Rare is the wise man who... shuts his eyes to outward things and so beholds the glory of the Atman within.'

Five hundred years later the Bhagavad-Gita takes up the theme like an echo:


Only that yogi

Whose joy is inward,

Inward his peace,

And his vision inward

Shall come to Brahman

And knows Nirvana". [21]

To find God hidden everywhere, in everything, is the true knowledge:

Who sees his Lord

Within every creature

Deathlessly dwelling

Amidst the mortal,

That man sees truly.

Who sees the separate

Lives of all creatures

United in Brahman

Brought forth from Brahman,

Himself finds Brahman. [22]


To know our essence, to know that Brahman has a living abode in our self is the sine qua non condition of becoming saints and seers

"A person of the measure of a thumb is the Inner Soul (Antaratman),

Ever seated in the heart of creature.

He is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind,

They who know that become immortal." (Svetasvatara Up. 3,13)


"By knowing what is therein, Brahma-knowers become merged in Brahma,

intent thereon, liberated from the womb (i.e. from rebirth) (Svet. 1.7)


"That Eternal should be known as present in the self (Atmasamstha). Truly there is nothing higher than that to be known,

When one recognizes the enjoyer, the object of enjoyment, and the universal Actuator, All has been said. This is the threefold Brahma." (Svetas. 1. 12)


The Monistic Theory in Hinduism has a famous conclusion for Man: Man is God himself. Tat Tvam Asi. (Chand. Up. 6.9.4 - 6.10.3 - 6.11.3. 6.12.3 - 6.13. 3 - 6.14.3 - 6.15.3 - 6.16.3 - 6.8.5.)

"Verily that great, unborn Soul, undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, is Brahma. Verily Brahma is fearless. He who knows this becomes the fearless Brahma." (Brih. Up. 4.4. 25)

" He, verily, who knows that supreme Brahma, becomes very Brahma" (Mundaka Up.2.9).


In the title to his Latin translation, 'Oupnekhat,' Anquetil Duperron set this sentence evidently as the summary of the contents of the Upanishads: 'Quisquis Deum intelligit, Deus fit,'' 'whoever knows God, becomes God.' [23]

In India, many saints and seers are, in fact, living illustrations of the Monistic Theory and Mysticism. As proof, a summary of Shankara's life will corroborate this idea.

Shankara was born in the late Eighth Century. He is best known for his doctrine of absolute or unqualified monism, or absolute nonduality, which, briefly stated, is that Brahman alone is real, the phenomenal world is unreal or mere illusion. The individual soul has no reality apart from Brahman, though caught by maya or illusion ; they, as well as the world around them, seem to have a kind of reality. This is due to ignorance of the alone reality of Brahman. This being so, salvation or moksha comes in the knowledge of the identity of the individual soul with the world soul, Brahman. [24]

Shankara had a prodigious memory; anything his teachers said stuck in his mind forever. What the average student learned in twelve years Shankara learned in one.

His teacher was Govindapada, a most realized man on earth, a man who had traveled inward into himself, to the very core of his being. Shankara implored Govindapada to make him heir to the knowledge of self-realization.

Govindapada taught him four sutras:

Prajnnam Brahma    Brahman is pure consciousness

Ayamatma Brahma  Soul is Brahman

Tat tvam Asi              You are that consciousness

Aham Brahsmasmi  I am Brahman.


At the age of twelve, Shankara was sent by his teacher to Banares to teach people on how they could understand their real selves. Indeed, his tender age, coupled with his extensive knowledge and deep insight, astounded all who came to see him. From that time onward, Shankara became known as Acharya (Teacher) or Shankaracharya.

At Banaras Shankarachyaka turned the tide of atheism. He compiled commentaries on the Brahma Sutra, Bhagavad Gita, and the principle Upanishads, all of which explained the non-dual substance, Brahman, as the ultimate reality. Shankaracharya comments on the nature of Brahman as that which is beyond the senses, impersonal, formless, eternal, and unchangeable, as the summum bonum of the Absolute Truth. According to Shankaracharya, that which is known as the Atma or soul is but a covered portion or illusioned part of the Supreme Brahman. That illusion, says Shankaracharya, is due to the veil of maya, which is created out of ignorance or forgetfulness of the True Self.

Shankaracharya's theory of illusion states that, although the Absolute Truth is never transformed, we think that it is so, which is an illusion. Shankaracharya did not believe in the transformation of the energy of the Absolute. Acceptance of the transformation of energy would have necessitated the acceptance of the Personality of the Absolute Truth or the personal existence of God- full-fledged theism. According to Shankaracharya we ourselves are God. When the veil of ignorance is removed, man will realize his complete identity as being inseparable from the Supreme Being or God.

Shankaracharya 's conviction was that the spiritual substance, Brahman, is supra-mundane -separate from the gross and subtle bodies of mind and intelligence in this world. Shankaracharya further stressed that mukti, or liberation from the cycle of birth and death, is possible only when the living being renounces his relationship with the material world. Shankaracharya says that the concept of "I" and "Mine"- I am an individual and these are my possessions: wife, children, property, etc.- are the causes of bondage to material existence and must be forsaken. Thus, the bulk of his followers were, and continue to be, celibate. Therefore, it is apparent that Shankaracharya was the partisan of Adwaita-vedanta. He stressed that the main purpose of the Vedas is this: Brahman alone is real; the phenomenal world is an illusion; and the individual soul is identical with Brahman. For him, rituals can lead only to karma- both good and bad, which prevents one from attaining self-realization. Then the only goal of the Vedas is Brahman.

Shankaracharya died at the age of thirty-two. [25]

Thus, we see that Shankaracharya devoted his whole life to illustrating the Monistic Theory and Mysticism.

[1] The Upanishads, Breath of the Eternal, translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Frederick Manchester (a Mentor Book from New American Library, New York) copyright by Vedanta Society of Southern California, Hollywood, California.

[2] Mund. 1.1.7 and 2. 1. 1. - Brih. 2. 1. 20. - Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishad.1966, Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street, New york, N.Y.10014, p. 163.

[3] Cavendish, Richard, Mythology, an illustrated Encyclopedia, 1980, p. 16 and 32.

[4] Rig veda X, 90 ; Yajurveda (VS, XXXI, XXXII; Atharvaveda, XII, 6 7 X, 2; Taittiriya Up. 1,5.1.-1,6.1; Aitareya Up. 1. 1-5.

[5] Yantra, the tantric symbol of cosmic unity. Madhu Khanna, 1979, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, Printed in Great Britain by Balding & Mansell, Cambridgeshire, p. 31.

[6] Ib. p. 32.

[7] Ib. p. 32.

[8] Ib. p. 33.

[9] Ib. p. 33.

[10] Ib. p. 80.

[11] Ib. p. 33.- Chandogya Up. (VIII, I, 1-3)

[12] Ib. p. 12.

[13] Andhra Pradesh, c. 19th century. Wood.- Ib. p. 168.

[14] Siva Samhita 2, 1-3, text cited and translated by Jean Varenne in Yoga and the Hindu Tradition, p. 155.- Ib. p. 119.

[15] Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy, 1971, The Pocket Book Edition, p. 339.

Troy Wilson Organ, The Hindu Quest for the Perfection of Man, 1970, Ohio University Athens, Ohio, p. 4.

Ib. p. 23

The thirteen principal Upanishads translated from the Sanskrit, by Robert Ernest Hume, Geoffrey Cumberlege Oxford University Press, 1951, p. 1,2, 21.

Troy Wilson Organ,The Hindu Quest for the Perfection of Man, 1970. Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, p.64

Ib. p. 69.

Huston Smith,the Religions of Man, 1958, Harper & Brothers, p. 57)

Bhagavad Gita, translated by Swami Prabhavananda, and Christopher Isherwood, Nancy Wilson Ross, Three Ways of Asian Wisdom, a Clarion Book, Published by Simon and Shuster, New York, 10020, 1969, p. 12.

Robert Ernest Hume,The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, 1988, Delhi Oxford University press, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, p. 377.

Vergilius Ferm, An encyclopedia of Religion, The Philosophical Library of New York, 1945, p. 707

The Clarion Call, magazine, Volume I, No 3, Summer 1988, Shankara the incarnation of Shiva. Jeffrey Wallace, p. 14-17, 60-61.

[16] Troy Wilson Organ, The Hindu Quest for the Perfection of Man, 1970, Ohio University Athens, Ohio, p. 4.

[17] Ib. p. 23.

[18] The thirteen principal Upanishads translated from the Sanskrit, by Robert Ernest Hume, Geoffrey Cumberlege Oxford University Press, 1951, p. 1,2, 21.

[19] Troy Wilson Organ,The Hindu Quest for the Perfection of Man, 1970. Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, p.64.

[20] Ib. p. 69.

[21] Huston Smith,the Religions of Man, 1958, Harper & Brothers, p. 57)

[22] Bhagavad Gita, translated by Swami Prabhavananda, and Christopher Isherwood, Nancy Wilson Ross, Three Ways of Asian Wisdom, a Clarion Book, Published by Simon and Shuster, New York, 10020, 1969, p. 12.

[23] Robert Ernest Hume,The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, 1988, Delhi Oxford University press, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, p. 377.

[24] Vergilius Ferm, An encyclopedia of Religion, The Philosophical Library of New York, 1945, p. 707.

[25] The Clarion Call, magazine, Volume I, No 3, Summer 1988, Shankara the incarnation of Shiva. Jeffrey Wallace, p. 14-17, 60-61.

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