The Monistic Theory

by Nhân Tử Nguyễn Văn Thọ

TOC | Preface | Chapters: 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 11 12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19

Chapter 5

The Kabbalah and the Monistic Theory


The Kabbalah has many spellings:

Kabbalah, refers to the Jewish mystical tradition which has emphasized prayer and study of esoteric commentaries on the Torah (Pentateuch) and other scriptures.

Cabala, refers to the spread of Kabbalistic teachings and symbols into Christian circles during the Renaissance (14th century and later).

Qabalah, implies the magical/occult use of the Kabbalah, beginning in the mid-1800s. [1]

But today, these words are used indifferently in Encyclopedias and books.

Sources and influences

Apparently, the main source of the Kabbalah was the doctrine and literature of the Jewish Tradition, mainly the Torah. But a wide variety of other sources has been noted, showing the impact of the various cultures with which the Jewish people have come in contact in their dispersion. Among these influences, should be included some Persian elements, both Parsi and Zoroastrian, Neo-Platonist and Neo-Pythagorian elements, Hermetic, Christian and Monistic themes, and even borrowings from Muslim sectarianism after the emergence of Islam. [2]

But, truly speaking, mystical experience lies at the root of the Kabbalah. Mystic Jews, throughout history, had independently discovered eternal truths. Their findings, when compared with those discovered by other mystics of other cultures, presented striking similarities. That led people to think about mutual borrowings. This is a very misleading view. A comparative study of the Yi-Ching and of the Kabballah, for instance, will show striking similarities. But one cannot conclude that there are mutual borrowings between these two currents of thought. A similar phenomenon happened in other fields. For instance, we find in science, the case of Russell Wallace (1823-1913) whose independent discovery of Natural Selection spurred Darwin (1809-1882) to publish his work.

Crystallization of the Kabbalah, its evolution and its main books

The crystallization of the Kabbalah took place in the 13th century when Sefer Ha-Bahir appeared, and a number of Spanish personalities, philosophers and commentators lent their intellectual weight and fame to mysticism, men like Nahmanides (Moses Ben Nahman or Ramban), Abraham Abulafia, Joseph Gikatilla and Moses de Leon. The teachings of the Kabbalah spread to Germany where Rabbi Judah Hasid was especially important, and reached their culmination during the 16th century in Palestine in the city of Safed, where Rabbi Isaac Luria created a new system of Jewish mysticism. The period of the 14th to 17th centuries may be looked upon as the aftermath of Kabbalistic creativeness; in addition to the personalities already mentioned, one must also name R. Isaiah Horwitz (Shelah Ha-Kadosh). [3]

The basic works of the Kabbalah are the Sepher Yetzirah (The Book of Formation), and the Sepher Ha Zohar (The Book of Splendor). The dates of the writing of these books are by no means thoroughly established. Some Kabbalists claim that the Sepher Yetzirah was written by Abraham. But it was probably written by the Rabbi Akiba in A.D. 120. The Sepher Ha Zohar, presumably written by Simeon Ben Jochai of the second century, has been compiled by Moses de Leon of Spain about A.D. 1305.

Teachings of the Kabbalah

The Kabbalah is known for its obscurity, its secrecy, its enticing air of mystery. But we know that it has two main characteristics:

1. As philosophy, it professes the monistic theory combined with the emanation theory.

2. As religion, it profess a mystic way of life, the final goal of it being the union with God.

From these two features, we can deduce almost all the main tenets of the Kabbalah.

A priori, we have already the following guide-posts:

1. An ineffable Godhead is the Principle of everything in this universe.

2. This Godhead, as Center, emanates the world.

3. The emanation process is performed in successive steps, and is governed by eternal and immutable laws. The building materials of the world are classified according to their densities: fire, air, water, earth...

4. Everything in this world, is intimately interconnected, interrelated to form an organic whole, with the Godhead as Center or Head. In other words, all the various phenomena of the universe form an underlying unity: all things are parts of an organized whole. There are secret laws which govern the universe and hidden connections between things which do not appear to be linked on the surface. The building materials of all things, as well as the different directions of the space which serve as theaters of change, are represented by the 10 numbers, called the 10 Sephiroths. The 10 numbers or Sephiroths also stand for immutable laws presiding all changes. They represent all the attributes of God and all the moral qualities of man. Letters stand for all the connections between things in the universe, for all the paths between the 10 numbers or Sephiroths. Letters and numbers provide a key to the pattern of the universe, because they give rise to innumerable different combinations and permutations resulting in words and languages: They are then images of the innumerable phenomena of the world which are produced by the combination and the permutation of few fundamental building blocks, and by their interactions. Numbers and letters in the hand of man, and building blocks in the universe are similarly used as instruments to evolve complexity from an underlying simplicity, the many from the One.

5. The process of change in the world is effected in two opposite directions - flux and reflux - to form a cycle: Everything comes out from the principle and returns finally to it.

6. God is transcendent (Ein-Sof) and at the same time immanent (Kether) in the world.

7. A mystic, if he realizes the presence of God in his heart, can be united to God. He can find his way to go back to the hidden Godhead.

8. The final aim for life for a mystic is to be united to God.

 9. This is also the glorious destiny of the whole mankind, although for many, it can be realized only after many successive lives. This is the Theory of Reincarnation.

The Kabbalah as a Monistic Theory of the Universe

 While official Judaism, as well as other prophetic religions in the world, is basically dualistic (God, the Transcendent Creator, the "wholly other", over against his creation), the Kabbalah, as well as all the other mystic brands in the world is monistically inclined (the essential unity of man with God, or of all beings, as such, with God.)

The Zohar was very emphatic about that. It wrote: "All is linked in a same Whole, so that it is easy to see that all is One; that all is the Ancient and that there is no distinction between the Whole and Him." [4]

 "The Whole is One, and the Whole is He; the Whole is the only thing without distinction nor separation." [5]

"The Ancient Saint exists, wrapped in the figure of the One. He is One, and All is One, and all the lights which radiate from Him are One and re-enter in the One."

"God is the beginning and the ending of all the degrees of the creation. All these degrees bear his mark and his character; and one cannot designate Him otherwise than the One. He is One in spite of the numerous forms which He had upon Him. It is upon Him that are suspended things, superior and inferior." [6]          

"Before the creation, all was contained in the same unity." [7]. In other words, if one declares that the universe is God or God is the universe, one says the same thing. "The En-Sof", says indeed the Zohar, "is clothed and wrapped by the Sephiroths, as the charcoal by the flames." Besides, after emanating the radiation of the primordial light in ten lights, it adds: "Nevertheless, all is One." [8]

The universe then appears less as a development of God than as a degradation of God...

Emanation as mechanism for the world appearance

The Kabbalah diverges from the exoteric Judaism, in rejecting the creation ex nihilo of the Bible, and in professing, instead, the Theory of Emanation, as mechanism for the world appearance. Botril cites the following words which, he says, are quoted literally from the "Philosopher's Stone":

"O thou man who drawest from the cisterns at the source, guard thyself, when tempted, from revealing anything of the doctrine of emanation which is a greatest mystery for all the Kabbalists, and this mystery is hidden in the words of the Law: "Thou shalt not tempt the Lord".[9]

Saadia sums up the Kabbalistic doctrine of Emanation as follows: "Now, as the Creator is the only Being Who was in existence at first, they maintain that He draw everything from his own substance".[10]

We can use some excerpts from Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma to describe the Kabbalistic Theory of Emanation.

"In the Kabbalah, as in the Persian and Gnostic doctrines, He is the Supreme Being unknown to all, the "Unknown Father". The world is His revelations and subsists only in Him. His attributes are reproduced there, with different modifications, and in different degrees, so that the Universe is His Holy Splendor: it is but His Mantel: but it must be revered in silence. All beings have emanated from the Supreme Being: The nearer a being is to Him, the more perfect it is; the more remote in the scale, the less its purity." [11]

 The Kabbalah conceived God as Non-Being, Being and Existent. We will examine these three modes.

God as Non-being

 The Kabbalah sustains that before the apparition of the world, the Supreme Being was a hidden and non-manifested Godhead. It was infinite, ineffable, homogenous and undifferentiated. It was then represented by a Circle without Center, and was termed as En-Sof (Ain-Soph).

"The Zohar didn't hesitate to replace the denomination En-Sof for a negative term, Ayin (No-thing). This term which was extended to the first divine manifestation, the first Sephira (The Crown), was foreign to all positive conceptions. God "in se" was the Ayin of Ayin, the No-thing of No-thing, or the quintessence of No-thing." [12]

"Thus, the Kabbalists claim to remain true to the popular belief that it was only by the power of the Divine Word that the World issued from nothingness. But we know already that "nothing" had quite another meaning for them. In the word of Abraham Dior, one of the commentators of the Sefer Yetzirat: "When it is maintained that all things were called forth from nothingness, nothingness in its proper sense is not what it meant, for being can never come out of non-being. Rather, what is meant is the Non-Being that cannot be conceived either through its cause or through its essence; in short, it is the Cause of Causes. It was what we called the Primitive Non-Being, preceding the universe; not only material objects, but also Wisdom, on which the world was founded. To inquire after the essence of Wisdom and how it coheres in Non-Being, or in the Supreme-Crown, is to ask an unanswerable (sic) question, for there is no differentiation and no manner of existence in Non-Being. Nor can we understand how Wisdom is united with life." [13]

It is worth noticing that Chinese philosophers also called the Supreme Being, Wu Ji (Vô Cực, Non-Polarized), or Void (Xu, Hư), or Chaos (Hun Tun, Hỗn Độn), which does not means chaos or disorders, but rather indifferentiation and homogeneity. They represented it also by a Circle without Center.

God as Being

 "In the process of creation, the diffused life of Ain-soph retires from the circumference to the Center and establishes a point, which is the first manifesting One - the primitive limitation of the all-pervading O. When the divine essence thus retires from the circular boundary to the Center, It leaves behind the Abyss, or, as the Kabbalists term it, the Great Privation. Thus in Ain-Soph is established a twofold condition where previously had existed but one. The first condition is the central point - the primitive objectified radiance of the eternal, subjectified life. About this radiance is darkness caused by the deprivation of the life which is drawn to the center to create the first point, or universal germ. The universal Ain-Soph, therefore, no longer shines through space, but rather upon space, from an established first point. Isaac Myers described this process as follows: "The Ain-Soph at first was filling All and then made an absolute concentration into itself which produced the Abyss, Deep, or Space, the Aveer Qadmon or Primitive Air, the Azoth; but this is not considered in the Qabbalah as a perfect void or vacuum, a perfectly empty Space, but it is thought of as the Waters or Crystalline Chaotic Sea, in which was a certain degree of Light inferior to that by which all the created (world and hierarchies) were made" [14].

"Concerning this, the Zohar says: "When the Concealed of the Concealed wishes to reveal Himself, He first made a single point: The Infinite was entirely unknown, and diffused no light before this luminous point violently broke through into vision".

The name of this point is I Am, called by the Hebrews Eheieh. The Qabbalists gave many names to this Dot. On this subject, Christian D. Ginsberg writes, in substance: The Dot is called the first Crown, because it occupies the highest position. It is called the Aged, because it is the first emanation..." [15]

"It is called the White Head, the Long Face - Macroposophus - and the Inscrutable High, because it controls and governs all other emanations. When the White Shining Point had appeared, it was called Kether, which means the Crown..." [16]

Kether is also called Yod. Thus one can says that Yod is the beginning and the end of all things that are. The stream that flows forth is the Universe of things, which always becomes, having no cessation...All things are included in Yod; wherefore it is called the Father of All." [17]

To sum up, "when the infinite God willed to emit what were to flow forth, He contracts Himself in the Center of his light, in such manner that the most intense light should reach to a certain circumference, and on all sides upon Himself. And this is the First Contraction, and termed Tsemsum[18]

Luria called this Contraction, The Zimzum Theory. [19]

We can draw this diagram:

The ZimZung Diagram

God as Existent

The Godhead can be designated as Existent, when it manifests Itself into the myriad of things and the Universe. This self-manifestation is done by two mechanisms: 


Self-differentiation or division.

This double phenomenon is summarized by the first three Sephiroth:           

The Three Sephiroth

“Briefly, the Kabbalah posits God prior to creation as existing in an undifferentiated state (En-Sof). The Universe, the World, and Humanity are the result of the emanation of the Divine from "out" of this fullness into particularity.

"The path or progression of this emanation is generally represented by the visual glyph of "The Tree of Life." [20]

Relation between Ain-Soph and Kether

So we see, Ain-Soph can be considered as the non-manifested Godhead, and Kether is the manifested Godhead. Ain-Soph is the infinite God, while Kether or Crown is his Will to create. In spite of this distinction, this name Ain-Soph can be applied to Kether or Crown.

Albert Pike wrote: "Ainsoph, Aensoph, Ayensoph, is the title of the Cause of Causes, its meaning being "endless", because there is no limit to its loftiness, and nothing can comprehend it. Sometimes, also, the name is applied to Kether or the Crown, the first emanation, because that is the Throne of the Infinite that is, its first and highest Seat, than which none is higher, and because Ainsoph resides and concealed therein: hence it rejoices in the same name." [21]

The Ten Sephiroths or the Tree of Life

The Ten Sephiroths, as manifestations of the Supreme Being, are endowed with many signification. They can mean facets or aspects of the divine personality, stages in God's revelation of himself and phases of the divine life, driving forces of the universe and the impulses which move man. They are also numbers from One to Ten, the building blocks from which all other numbers are constructed

Ten Sephiroths as working-stocks of the universe

There are ten emanations of numbers out of nothings:

1. The Spirit of the Living God.

2. From the Spirit, emanated Air.

3. From the Air, Water.

4. From the Water, Fire.

5-10. From the Fire, the Height (5), and the Depth(6), the East (7) and the West(8), the North (9) and the South (10). [22]

 The Ten Sephiroths, as speculations on the universe.

The Ten Sephiroths are frequently represented by three triangles and one circle.

The first triangle is constituted: Crown, Hokhmah and Binah .


The Sephiroth First Triangle

It deals with the way by which the universe emanated from God.

From the One, or Kether or the Androgyne Godhead, spring two first Principles: The Masculine and the Feminine, the Father and the Mother of everything. One can also assimilate the Crown to the Will of God; Hokhmah to the Wisdom of God, and Binah to his Intelligence.

The Godhead wills to manifest itself into the world; he plans and then performs

"The Infinite first limits Himself by flowing forth in the shape of Will, of determination to act. This Will of Deity, or the Deity as Will, is Kether, or the Crown, the first Sephirah. In it are included all the Emanations...For to the creation of anything, it is absolutely necessary that the Infinite should form for Himself and in Himself, an idea of what He willed to produce or create: and as there is no Time with Him, to will was to create, to plan was to will and to create; and in the Idea, the Universe in potency, the universal succession of things was included. Henceforward, all was merely evolution and development." [23]

The nature of the Active Principle is to diffuse: of the Passive Principle, to collect and make fruitful.

The next two triangles are dealing with immutable laws that govern the existence of everything.

The second triangle is represented as follows

The Second Triangle of Sephiroth

Hesed or Gedulah, the love or mercy of God, is the force which molds and organizes things, which constructs and builds up (Anabolism)

The opposite Sephira, Geburah (Din or Pachad), the power and stern judgment of God, balances the constructive activity of Hesed with the destructive activity (Catabolism). All phenomena are then governed by the law of the opposites, by the interplay of construction and destruction, of growth and decay, of birth and death.

They are united and reconciled in Tiphareth (Or Rahamin), the beauty of God, resulting in Harmony and Equilibrium.

 In the third triangle, we have:

The Third Triangle of Sephiroth

Netsah is the force of attraction and cohesion of the universe. Its opposite Sefira, Hod, represents essentially a mercurial quality of things - ever flowing, shifting and in constant flux... [24]

The Kabbalah, by its Sephiroths, likes to convey an eternal truth: That under the apparent strife between opposing forces, there is Harmony and Beauty, which is the result of a just Equilibrium.

Thus the Tree of Life can be considered as a balance. "...The Scales of the Balance are designated as Male and Female. In the Spiritual world, Evil and Good are in equilibrium, and it will be restored, when, of Evil, Good becomes, until all is Good... For Hakemak is on the right hand, on the side of Gedulah, and Binah on the left, on the side of Geburah; and Kether is the beam of the balance above them in the middle, so Gedulah or Khased is on one hand, and Geburah on the other, and under these, Tephared; and Netsah is on one side, and Hod on the other, and under these, Yesod..." [25]

As implied in Yesod, the Stability and the Permanence of the Universe, can only be realized by the harmonious cooperation of the two opposite forces. By Harmony and by Equilibrium, God realized His Perfection, His Success, and His Glory.

The last Sefira, Malkhuth, is the sphere of the earth, matter, and physical body. Malkhuth is the union of the Sephiroths in the entire tree. It is frequently called the Shekhinah, the divine presence in the world, the divine presence in God's people, Israel, and the divine presence in man. Thus, The Kingdom, or Malkhuth, does not express any new attribute, but simply the harmony which exists between all the other attributes and their absolute rule over the world.

To realize the Divine Presence of God in the world and in oneself is illumination, is Gnosis, is the first step for the regeneration. So Malkhuth, with Yesod, Tiphareth and Kether in the Middle Column, form what the Kabbalist called the Tree of Life, while the Right Column was called the Tree of Good, and the Left Column was called the Tree of Evil, in reference to the creation story in Genesis.

The discovery of the Divine Presence in oneself is the first step of Ascent from the phenomenal world to God. The second step, is to lead a harmonious life, suggested by Yesod. The third step is to live an ideal life, represented by Tiphareth, and the final step is to get back to the One, the Absolute, represented by Kether. [26]

The idea of returning back to the Origin is frequently suggested in the Sephiroths. It was written in the Sepher Zetzirah: "The appearance of the Ten Spheres (Sephiroths) out of nothing is as a flash of lighting or a sparkling flame, and they are without beginning or end. The Word of God is in them when they go forth and when they return. They run by His order like a whirlwind and prostrate themselves before His Throne. The Ten Sephiroths have their end linked to their beginning and their beginning linked to their end, conjoined as the flame is wedded to the live coal, for the Lord is Superlatively One and to Him there is no second." [27]

"All things will re-enter the Foundation from which they issued. Thus in the cosmic process, there are two tendencies - the eternal flux and reflux - designated by the Kabbalists as Hitpashtuth (exit), and Histalhut (re-entry) which keep on acting and re-acting. In the same way as the human organism exists by the double process of inspiration and expiration - the one cannot be conceived without the other -, the whole creation is a gigantic process of divine inspiration and expiration..." [28]

There are many ways of presenting the 10 Sephiroths:

1. It can be presented in columns:

The right column is the Tree of Good.

The left column is the Tree of Evil.

The middle column is the Tree of Life. 

2. It can be presented by three triangles and one circle.           

3. It can be presented by a human figure: The man being Adam Kadmon, the "heavenly" or "universal" man, the original spiritual and ideal form of humanity.

When they are presented in three columns, they suggest the idea of a balance, the two hands of which suggest the two opposing forces in the universe, and the beam of which suggests the eternal law of Poise or Equilibrium resulting from the harmonious interaction of the two opposing forces. 

The Sephiroths And Their Interrelation 


The Three Pillars and Their Ascent


The Three Triangles 

The 10 Sephiroths are linked together by 22 paths, representing the 22 letters in the Jewish alphabet. It aims to show that everything in the universe is interdependent, that everything forms an inseparable whole. If so, man can never be separated from God, his Source and Origin.

To sum up, the Ten Sephiroths are used to describe the relation between the hidden, non-manifest, inaccessible and transcendent Godhead (En-Soph) and the manifest, dynamic, a creative aspect of God. The Sephiroths (for which many other synonyms are used in the Kabbalistic literature, e. g. crowns, attributes, steps, principles, names) mediate between the hidden, mystical "Cause above all Causes" and the world of plurality and matter. Together, they compose a Tree of Life. It is a map of everything and a classification of everything. The Tree's branches spread through the entire universe, reconciling all diversity in a unified pattern. Furthermore, it shows both the descent of the divine into manifestation and the ascent by which man can reverse the process of emanation and climb back up the Tree, as it were, to regain the Godhead.

The presentation of the Ten Sephiroths in the figure of a Man, called Adam Kadmon, or Macroprosopos, the first prototype or Universal, or Macrocosm teaches us this very important lesson: that man really has two aspects: The existential aspect which is the existential man, the visible man of everyday, and the essential man, the divine man, the essential aspect which is co-eternal with the Godhead itself.

 The existential man, is in fact, the Malkuth, the Shekhinah, the God in exile in the material world, the divine spark imprisoned in everything. As the existential man cannot be separated from the essential man, the existential God (Malkuth) cannot be separated from the essential God (sometimes represented by Tiphareth). If man can be re-united to God, if the Material Man can be re-united to the Divine Man, it is called Unio Mystica, or Hierosgamos (sacred marriage), or in a lesser degree, communion with God or Devekuth (a turning to God, a loving clinging or adhering to Him which implies no loss of identity.)

 Everything in the mystic Kabbalah is directed to the rooting of the soul in God and the ransoming of the divine spark (Tikkun), the return of Divine Presence, from its abandonment in the Exile and its diffusion through the world's brokenness, and the redemption into unity.

The Kabbalah's Tree of Life suggests that all life is bound into unity which descends from the Most High to the world beneath. But, as a matter of fact, the world is splintered by duality of perception: men are estranged from each other, nature is estranged from man and the estrangement enforces upon men the strategy of power and manipulation which, however much it affords temporary protection and insulation, augments the estrangement.

The Kabbalist mystic, beginning as he does with the vision of the unity which preceded creation, a unity in which all life shared, has the task of returning men to an interior depth which enables them at first to grasp their own unity, and at the end, to do for others the work of unification.

The 22 paths or the 22 letters of the Hebraic alphabet

The 22 letters are divided into three groups:

The three Mothers א ,ם,ש (Sh, M, A) representing the three primordial elements in the universe:

Heaven was created from the elementary Fire (or Ether) (ש, C).

The Earth, comprising sea and land, from the elementary Water. (M, ם).

And the atmospheric air, from the elementary Air, or Spirit (A, א) which establishes the balance among them. Thus, were all things produced.

God appointed and established three Mothers א ,ם,ש combined, weighed, and exchanged them, forming by them three Mothers א ,ם,ש, in the universe, in the year, and in man (male and female). [29]

 The three Mothers in the universe are: Air, Water, and Fire. The three Mothers in the Year are: heat, coldness and the temperate state. Heat was created from Fire, coldness from Water, and the temperate state from Air, which equilibrates them. The Three Mothers produced in man (male and female) breast, abdomen and head. The head was formed from the Fire, the abdomen from the water, and the breast (thorax) from Air, which places them in equilibrium. [30]

The seven double letters ת,ר,ף,כ,ד,ג,ב  (B, G, D, K, P, R, Th) have a duplicity of pronunciation (two voices), aspirated and unaspirated. They serve as a model of softness and hardness, strength and weakness.

The seven double letters symbolize wisdom, riches, fertility, life, power, peace and grace.

The seven double letters also signify the antithesis to which human life is exposed. The opposite of wisdom is foolishness; of riches, poverty; of fertility, sterility; of life, death: of power, servitude; of peace, war; and of beauty, deformity.

The seven double letters point out six dimensions, height, depth, East and West, North and South, and the Holy Temple in the Center, which sustains them all.

 The double letters are seven and not six, they are seven and not eight; reflect upon this fact, search into it and reveal its hidden mystery and place the Creator in His throne again. (It means that the throne of God, like the Holy Temple is always in the Center of everything). The seven double letters having been designed, established, purified, weighed, and exchanged by God. He formed, of them, seven planets in the universe, seven days in the Year, and seven gateways of the senses in man (male, female). From these seven He also produced seven heavens, seven earths, and seven Sabbaths. Therefore He loves seven more than any other number beneath His throne.

The seven planets in the universe are: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and Moon. The seven days in the Year are the seven days of the week (possibly the seven creative days are meant). The seven gateways in man (male and female) are two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and the mouth.

With the seven double letters He also designed seven earths, seven heavens, seven continents, seven seas, seven rivers, seven deserts, seven days, seven weeks (from Passover to Pentecost) and in the mist of them His Holy Palace. There is a cycle of seven years and the seventh is the release year, and after seven release years is the Jubilee. For this reason God loves the number seven more than any other thing under the heavens. [31]

 The 12 simple letters ה,ו,ז,ח,ט,י,ל,נ,ס,ע,צ,ק (Q, X, U, S, N, L, Y, F, J, Z, W, H) symbolize the twelve fundamental properties: speech, thought, movement, sight, hearing, work, coition, smell, sleep, anger, taste (or swallowing), and mirth.

The simple letters corresponds to twelve directions: east height, northeast, east depth; south height, southeast, south depth; west height, southwest, west depth; north height, northwest, north depth. They diverge in all eternity and are the arm of the universe.

 The simple letters having been designed, established, weighed, and exchanged by God. He produced by them twelve zodiacal signs in the universe, twelve months in the year, and twelve chief organs in the human body (male and female).

The signs of the zodiac are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. The months of the Year are: Nisan, Ijar, Sivan, Tammus, Ab, Elul, Tisri, Marchesvan, Kislev, Tebet, Sebat, and Adar. The organs of the human body are: two hands, two feet, two kidneys, gall-bladder, small intestine, liver, esophagus, stomach, and spleen. [32]

Thus, the 22 letters suggest that this world is formed from some substances, and is governed by opposing forces. But in the middle, in the Center of all phenomena, God is always present to govern, to direct and to conserve...They stress on the immanence of God, and the unity, the interconnection of everything.

To be complete, we must mention briefly the Four Worlds according to the Kabbalah:

Atziluth, the Boundless World of Divine Names.

Briah, the Archangelic World of Creations.

Yetzirath, the Hierarchical World of Formations.

Assiah, the Elemental World of Substances. 

Each world has 10 powers, or spheres, because each world contains the 10 Sephiroths or their reflections. So we have 40 spheres of creation out of the En-Sof.

It is important to mention that the four Kabbalistic worlds are associated with the four elements:

Atziluth corresponds to the Element Fire.

Briah is associated with the Element Air.

Yetzirah is linked with the Element Water.

Assiah is connected with the Element Earth. [33] 

Simply speaking, we can posit the Four Worlds respectively as Divine, Spiritual, Psychical and Material.

We can see in some Kabbalistic books that the Four Elements correspond to the four letters in the Tetragrammaton, such as shown in the following picture. [34] 

The Tetragrammaton 

Thus, some Kabbalists accept three elements (Fire, Air, Water) as the primal elements of the world, while others prefer to accept four elements as building blocks of the universe (Fire, Air, Water, Earth).

So for the Kabbalists, the world is formed by a complex system of mechanisms: Emanation (En-sof emanating the ten Sephiroths), Self-Division (Kether dividing itself into Binah (Female Principle) and Hokhmah (Male Principle), Fecundation (Interaction among Binah and Hokhmah), Combination, Permutation, Inversion (The Four Elements) Mutual Modification and Interchange (the Three Elements), and Reflection (The first three Sephiroths reflecting themselves in the lower spheres. [35]


As the Jewish Kabbalah is mostly written in code, and all of it in the form of allegories, it takes much effort to form a clear idea of its chief tenets.

The Kabbalah is a proponent of the Emanation Theory: It asserts that the world is not created ex nihilo by God, but emanates from Him.

It does not consider God as a spiritual Being creating the world ex nihilo, by His command, radically separated from the world, but rather as a Principle manifesting itself step by step into this visible world. He is not separated from the world but is immanent in it, embodied therein. God is the Soul and the World His body, or his garment.

The Kabbalah makes an exhaustive inquiry about God. It follows Him step by step, from the depth of Nothingness (En-Sof), to Being (Kether) and to Existence (Ten Sephiroths). It explains how the Absolute can generate the Relative, the One can generate the Multiple, and how the Multiple can re-gain the Unity with the One. In the Kabbalah, it is shown how the Godhead can engender the world, and the complex mechanism of the world appearance is mentioned; Emanation (Ein-Soph and the Ten Sephiroths), Differentiation (Kether differentiating itself into Hokhmak and Binah - Male and Female Principles), Mutual Fecundation and Interaction (Binah and Hokhmah), Reflection (three superior Sephiroths into seven inferior Sephiroths), Interplay of Opposite Forces (Tree of Good and Tree of Evil), and their Reconciliation creating Harmony and Beauty, Stability and Permanence (Tree of Life, Tiphareth, and Yesod).

The Kabbalah considers the Godhead as comprehending the world and as acting inside each being (transcendent and immanent). Guided by these two apparently contradicting views, we can say with Paul: "For in Him we live, and move, and have our being" (Acts, 17, 28), or with Jesus Christ: "The Kingdom of God is within you" (Luke, 17, 21) or again with Paul: "Know thee not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, which is in you, which ye have of God." (1. Cor. 6, 19), and "I think also that I have the Spirit of God" (1. Cor. 7, 40).

One of the main ideas of the Kabbalists is that the world is engendered from Kether, considered as a dot in the center of a circle. Thus the development of beings is done by successive degeneration and from the Center to the Periphery. Henri Serouya wrote: "Thus the development from the Infinite to the Finite carried in itself degradation from the perfect to the imperfect. The perfection diminishes in proportion to the distance which separates the arrival point from the primordial point or focus. Beings are characterized by multiplicity and thus inferior to One. The more a being, on its way of evolution, tends to go away, the more it is prone to be condensed and to be materialized. In this sense, the development of beings is done from the Center to the Periphery and thus in successive order; these orders are arranged like concentric circles. Each order is the cover, the rind, the matter of the order which is immediately superior to it; and the spirit of the order which is immediately inferior to it."

"This subtle theory of rinds is emphasized in the Zohar, and bears an interesting metaphysical conception in regards to the entire being. Thus for Jewish mystics, God is considered as the Center. The development of Sephiroths, and of their action, is suggested by concentric circles. The inferior wraps the superior and served as its protecting rind. "The whole created universe including the Sephiroths, is then only the rind of En-Sof, as rinds of the onion are the garments of the seed. Thus according to these ideas, spirit and matter are not two separate essences, independent from each other, two distinct substances but two modes of the same substance, considered in its distance, lesser or greater from the Initial Point. For the Zohar, matter is somewhat spirit becoming visible. It is the visible imprint of the invisible seal call spirit..." [36]

The Kabbalistic view of the world as concentric circles, organized according to their respective Densities (Fire, Air, Water, Earth), is shared by universal symbolism, and by other occult schools. "The ancient sages considered above and below as indicating degree of distance from source, source being posited in the actual center and relative distance being the various points along the various points along the radii from the Center toward the circumference. In matter pertaining to philosophy and theology, up may be considered as toward the center, and down as toward the circumference. Center is Spirit, circumference is matter. Therefore, Up is toward Spirit along an ascending scale of spirituality; Down is toward matter along an ascending scale of materiality. The latter concept is partly expressed by the apex of a cone when viewed from the above, is seen as a point in the exact center of the circumference formed by the base of the cone." [37]

The Kabbalah teachings present striking similarities, when compared with those of other Esoteric schools. The division of the Tree, into Three Pillars, for instance, "reminds us of the three channels of Prana, described by the Yogis, Ida, Pingala, and Shushuma; and the two principles, the Yin and the Yang of Chinese Philosophy and the Tao (or Tai Ji) which is the equilibrium between them. By the agreement of witnesses, truth is established, and when we find three of the great metaphysical systems of the world, in complete agreement, we may conclude that we are dealing with established principles and should accept them as such." [38]

The division of the universe into four worlds, the hierarchies of which, are based upon their densities, namely:

Atziluth, the Archetypal World, meaning Emanation and symbolizing the celestial realm or divine realm, consisting of Kether, and corresponding to the Element of Fire.

Briah, called the Creative World, consists of Hokhmak and Binah, and is represented by the Element of Air. It is the Spiritual Realm.

Yetzirah, meaning Formation, is the Formative World, consisting of the six central Sephiroths, viz. Chesed, Geburah, Tiphareth, Netzach, Hod, and Yesod. Its emblem is the Element of Water. It can be called the Psychological or Astral World.

Assiah, meaning Action, consisting of Malkuth, is The Material World and corresponds to the Element of Earth. [39]

If we consider Fire and Water as two extreme terms, and Air and Earth as two middle terms, we can say that these four Elements represent the four letters of the Tetragrammaton, viz.:

Fire corresponding to the Yod

Air corresponding to Vau

Water corresponding to the first He

Earth corresponding to the second He.[40] 

Let us be reminded that among other signification, the famous word INRI can also stand four the Four Elements, namely: Its four letters are the initials of the Hebrew words that represent the Four Elements - Iammim, the Sea or Water; Nour, Fire; Rouach, The Air; and Iebeschah, the dry Earth. [41]

In ancient times, the Four Elements found applications in every fields, be it Medicine, Astrology or Divination.

"The Four Elements correspond to the four temperaments as described by Hippocrates, the four Tarot suits, the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and the seven planets. If the implications are worked out, it will be seen that herein are contained some very important keys. "The Element of Earth corresponds to the Phlegmatic Temperament, the suit of Pentacles (Diamond), the signs of Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn, and the planets Venus and Luna. "The Element of Water corresponds to the Bilious Temperament, the suit of Cups (Heart), the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and the planet Mars. "The Element of Air corresponds to the Choleric Temperament, the suit of Swords (Spade), the signs of Libra, Gemini and Aquarius, and the planets Mercury and Saturn. "The Element of Fire corresponds to the Sanguine Temperament, the suit of Wands (Club), The signs Aries, Sagittarius and Leo, and the planets Sol and Jupiter. [42]

 Other authors using these four elements, classify men into four temperaments, but a little bit differently, as follows: 




(Hot temper of the choleric) 




(Dry humor of the sanguine) 





(The melancholic "dampening" effect of our Spirit)







 The Yi Jing associated the Four Elements with four colors: Fire with Red; Air (Wood) with Green; Metal (Earth) with White; Water with Black. Amazingly enough we see the four horses in Zechariah having the same colors (red horse, black horse, white horse, grisled and bay horse) (Zechariah 6, 2-7). The Revelation mentionned also the four horse in the same colors (Rev. 6, 2-8).

Thus the Four Worlds of the Kabbalah, corresponding to the Four Elements, with the Two Principles - Hokhmah and Binah - are the two main tenets that stand for the Emanation Theory. So we can use the Four Worlds, the Four Elements as pass-words to regroup all the Esoteric schools East and West that profess the Emanation Theory. The Four Elements are expressed variously as:

- The four letters in YHVH and in INRI.

- The four geometrical solids in Timaeus of Plato: Fire (Tetrahedron), Air (Octahedron), Water (Icosahedron), Earth (Cube).

- The Four Beasts, symbolizing the Four Sides of the Sky: Taurus, Leo, Scorpio (Eagle), Aquarius (Man). Each Beast is also represented by a brigthest Star in the Zodiacal band: Aldebarran (Taurus), Regulus (Leo), Antares (Scorpio) Fomalhaut (Aquarius).

- The Four Beasts become the emblems for the Four Evangelists: Taurus stand for Luke, Leo for Marc, Eagle for John, Aquarius for Matthew.They become the Four Creatures found in Ezechiel's vision (Eze. 1, 10, and 10,14), and in John's vision (Rev. 4, 7).

- The four beast enter in the composition of the Sphinxes, especially in Assyrian Sphinxes (Encyclopaedia of Art, Plate 523, and 488).

- The Four Elements in Buddhist and Hinduist philosophy: Fire, Water, Earth, Air.

- The Four Elements in the Yi-Ching with some modification, viz.: Fire, Wood (Air), Metal (Earth), Water.

- The Four Suits of the Tarot: Wands (Club) (Fire); Cups (Heart) (Water); Swords (Spade) (Air); Pentacles (Diamond).

- The Four Elements of Alchemy (Fire, Air, Water, Earth).

- The Four Elements in the Zoroastrian religion of Persia.

- The Four First Chakras in the Indian physiology:        

- The basal, supra-anal center (Four Petals), Muladhara Chakra: Earth

- The penile center (Six Petals), Svadhishthana: Water.

- The umbilical center (Ten Petals), Manipura: Air.

- The cardiac center (Sixteen Petals): Anahata: Fire 

The Four Worlds in the Kabbalah.

- Atziluth: Fire.

- Briah: Air.

- Yetsirah: Water.

- Assiah: Earth. 

Dion Fortune assimilates this fourfold classification to the Rosetta Stone, which gave the key to Egyptian hieroglyphs, for on it were inscriptions in Egyptian and Greek; Greek being known, it is possible to work out the meaning of the corresponding hieroglyths.[43]

 But we have not to be far-fetched. We have only to remember this succession of number taught by the Yi-ching: 0, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32/ 1/64 etc and we will know how the World has been created: It has been created by Emanation and by DIvision by the One.

So the Four Worlds of the Kabbalah, or the Tree of Life, consisting of the Ten Sephiroths, arranged in the 4 worlds will give the real esoteric clue to each of these systems of Oriental and Occidental occultisms. Hence the vital importance of the Four World, the Four Elements, the Tree arranged in the Four Worlds in Western Occultism. We will also use the Four Elements, as our key to open all the esoteric teachings, and all the esoteric symbols in the world. We will use the Four Elements, in combination with the Circle and the Center to decipher all the hyeroglyphic code of occultism.

The esoteric teachings about the nature of man and the human destiny, are given in the figure of Adam Kadmon, as Primordial Man, or Divine Man, and of the Existential Man or Actual Man. So man has a double nature. Apparently, he is entangled in the material and social world, as man destined to die, but essentially, he is divine, and is consubstantial to God. His destiny is then to return to the Godhead, and to enjoy immortality.

To realize his true nature, his divine nature, and to find the way back to the Godhead, he is guided by the meditation on the Central Column of the Tree of Life. He must, first of all, realize the presence of God (Malkuth) in himself, as well as in everything in this world. His human Self must be united to the Divine Self. He must lead a harmonious life and avoid all excesses and defects (Tiferet) which will result in the final union with God, represented by Kether.

Thus, when the divine nature and the human nature are separated, man is on his downward journey toward a materialistic existence. When his human nature will be re-united with the divine nature [Tiferet suggesting Union, Beauty resulting from the reconciliation and union of these two polar forces (human and divine)], man is on his upward journey toward the Ancient of Days considered as androgyne (both male and female). Thus the Fall is characterized by the separation from God; and salvation requires re-union with God. This is the true "Atonement" (At-One-Ment).

 The Tree of Life, with all its interconnecting paths, suggests that all life is bound into a unity which descends from the Most High to the world beneath. Unfortunately, as a matter of fact, the world is splintered by dualities of perception: men are estranged from each other; nature is estranged from man and the estrangement enforces upon men the strategy of power and manipulation, which, however much it affords temporary protection and insulation, augments the estrangement. The Kabbalistic master, beginning as he does with the vision of the unity,which preceded creation, a unity in which all life shared, has the task of returning men to an anterior depth which enables them at first to grasp their own unity and, at the end, to do for others the work of unification.

It is said that Binah and Chokmah are the archetypal Positive and Negative. It is from these primary pairs of Opposites that the pillars of the universe spring between which is woven the web of manifestation. It is between these two polarizing aspects of manifestation - The Supernal Father and The Supernal Mother that the web of life is woven; souls go back and forth between them like a weaver's shuttle. In our individual lives, in our physiological rhythms, and the history of the rise and the fall of the nations, we observe the same rhythmic periodicity. Thus, the pairing of opposites does not only occur in type, it also occurs in time, and we have alternating epochs in our lives, in our physiological processes, and in the history of nation, during which activity and passivity, construction and destruction alternatively prevail; the knowledge of the periocity of these cycles is part of the secret and guarded ancient wisdom of the initiates, and is worked out astrologically and qabalistically.

The universal life is a flow of changes carried out from Kether to Malkuth, i.e. from Spirit to Matter and vice versa. Thus does consciousness descends in the course of involution from the First Manifest through the subtle planes of existence to dense Matter; then ascends from Matter back to Spirit; this second phase can be also termed as evolution. According to the Kabbalah, the mystic should, strictly speaking, only use the term evolution, when describing the ascent from Matter back to Spirit, for then is evolved that which was involved through the subtle phases of development. It is obvious that nothing can be evolved, unfolded, which was not previously involved, enfolded.

The deeper insight we can have of the Kabbalah, the more useful lessons we can learn from it.

It is mainly because of the high rank the Kabbalists assign man, that they recommend themselves to our interest and that the study of their system assume great importance for the history of philosophy as well as of religion.

According to the Kabbalah, man is both divine and human. Essentially, man is truly YHVH. The Tetragrammaton written vertically represents effectively a standing man, Yod being his head; He, his arms; Vau, his body; and the He final, his leg [44]


The Middle Column of the Tree of Life teaches us the way back to God, and shows us all the successive steps of the process of this Magnum Opus (Great Work)

Let us meditate again upon Malkuth, Yesod, Tiphareth and Kether.


 Malkuth is Shekhinah or the Divine Presence. But it can be called the Gate of Death (or the Gate of Tears) or on the contrary, the Gate of the Garden of Eden. If we go outwardly, in this phenomenal world, for the quest of material riches and honors, Malkuth is then the Gate of Death or Tears. But, if we realize the Presence of God in our self, and go inwardly for the quest of the union with the immanent God, Malkuth is then the Gate of Eden. Thus, The Kabbalah reminds us that God and the Garden of Eden is within us. It is worthy noticing that while Malkuth represents the Gate of Eden, its Indian counterpart, the Muladhara Cakra is also termed as Brahma's Gate. We are then, the Temple of God and the Kingdom of God is effectively within us (Luke 17, 21).


Yesod is associated with the Holy Spirit, and with the vision of the machinery of the universe. [45]

This means that under the apparent state of continual flux and reflux, the world is stable and permanent on its foundation (Yesod). Furthermore, under the Four Material Elements represented by Malkuth, we must discover the Fifth Element, the Quintessence, the Spirit, which is the Spirit of God (Yesod). Thus behind the flux and reflux of phenomena conditioned by the interplay of opposing forces, there is an equilibrating power, which maintains the harmony, the stability and the permanence of the world. Thus, in its apparent aspect, Yesod is unquestionably the sphere of Illusions. If the soul is immersed in the Lathe of its passions and fascinations, she forgets its divine origin. But, if she has a true knowledge about the machinery of the world, she will be emancipated from Maya and Illusions.


Tiphareth is associated with the vision of the harmony of things, and of the mysteries of the Crucifixion. Its symbol is the Calvary Cross or a truncated pyramid. [46]

Besides, Tiphareth is the junction between the Divine and the Human. The four Sephiroths below Tiphareth represent the Personality, or the Lower Self. The four Sephiroths above Tiphareth are the Individuality or The Higher Self. [47]

Thus, Kether is metaphysical, divine; Yesod is psychic; and Tiphareth is mystic, the junction between the two.

God must be sacrificed on the Cross at the level of Tiphareth, to become man; and man must die on the Cross at the level of Tiphareth to become God. Tiphareth is, then, the symbol of Union of God through self-renunciation... The human consciousness, rising from Yesod, is illuminated in Tiphareth. By illumination, by the recognition of his divine nature, man can be called the Son of God. From thence, man is very dignified. He can say: "The greatest evil is when I forget that I am the son of a King."


 Kether has many names: It is called Existence of Existences, Concealed of the Concealed, Ancient of the Ancients, Ancient of Days, The Primordial Point, The Point within the Circle, the Most High, the Vast Countenance, the White Head, Macroprosopos, Amen, Lux Occulta, Lus Interna...

It stands for the Union with God. It can be termed as the Completion of the Great Work of Alchemists. It corresponds to the Divine Spark; the Cranium; the Thousand Petals Lotus. (Sahamsara Chakra) [48].

Thus, from the Primordial Point, sprung out the whole world, and to this Point, the whole universe will be re-absorbed at the end of the time. Ein-sof, Kether and other Sephiroths are the hidden God, and his emanated manifestation. The hidden God and his emanated manifestation in the Ten Sephiroths describes the process of wrenching the being of God from his concealment before creation into the act of creation, and thereafter into that immanent ebb and flow which describes the lost-and-found world of the Spirit.

Kether is the Lux Interna - the Internal Light -, the Divine Spark which is the warrant for our divine nature.

Kether shows us that the throne of God is located, not in Heaven - but in the Center of our Brain, in our Third Ventricle - called also: The Thousand Petals Lotus, by Hindus; and Ni-Huan Palace, or Nirvana, by the Chinese. [49]

In Kether, the Union with God is achieved through the loss of self-identity. The polar opposition between Divine and Human, Male and Female, I-Thou disappears and is replaced by a new state of indifferentiation (Kether is Androgyne, per se).

Kether is the abyss from whence all arose, and back into which it will fall at the end of its epoch. Then Kether is the summary of the Emanation Theory and the Consummation of Mysticism. Hence, it is termed as the Completion of the Great Work (Magnum Opus).

Kether, understood as the Completion of the Great Work, will give us also the key to unlock the mysterious castle of Alchemy.


 "Kabbalah is, as Scholem has observed, theosophical mysticism, not theosophical in the sense in which this term had come to mean pseudo-religious ideology, but theosophical as signifying "a mystical doctrine, or school of thoughts, which purports to perceive and to describe the mysterious workings of the Divinity.." (Scholem, Major Trends, p. 206) "The God of such theosophy unfolds himself toward the world, establishing through the variety of his emanations and influences connecting with the variegations of natural and human life. By coming to understand the rhythm and pulse of this mysterious life of divinity, the mystic adept can transform himself into a repose for the divine presence, can perfect himself toward the divine, can even, under the most rare of circumstances, believe himself merged with the divine."

"One is filled", wrote Albert Pike, "with admiration, on penetrating into the Sanctuary of the Kabalah, at seeing a doctrine so logical, so simple, and at the same time, so absolute. The necessary union of ideas and signs, the consecration of the most fundamental realities by the primitive characters; the Trinity of Words, Letters, and Numbers; a philosophy as simple as the alphabet; profound and infinite as the Word; theorems more complete and luminous than those of Pythagoras; a theology summed up by counting on one fingers; an Infinite which can be held in the hollow of an infant's hand; ten ciphers, and twenty-two letters, a triangle, a square, and a circle, -these are all the elements of the Kabalah. These are the elementary principles of the written world, reflection of that spoken Word that created the world." [50]

[1] Gnosis, A Journal of the Western Inner Tradition, No 3, p. 6.

[2] The Jewish Encyclopedia.

[3] The Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 258.

[4] Jean de Pauly, Sepher Ha Zohar III, pp.289b-290a.

[5] Zohar III, pp. 290a-290b.

[6] Zohar I, p. 21a.

[7] Henry Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, 1947, p. 224.

[8] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, Paris, 1949, p. 226.

[9] Adolphe Franck, The Kabbalah, Bell Publishing Co, 1940, p. 44.

[10] Adolphe Franck, The Kabbalah, Bell Publishing Co, 1940, p. 44.

[11] Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, Charleston, 1944, pp. 266-267.

[12] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, Paris, 1947, p. 226.

[13] Adolphe Franck, The Kabbalah, Bell Publishing Co, 1940, p. 112.

[14] Manly P. Hall, The Philosophical Society, 1977, p. 117.

[15] Ibiden, p. 117.

[16] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings Of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society Inc., Los Angeles California, CA 90027, 1977, p. 117.

[17] Albert Pike,Morals and Dogma, Charleston, 1944, p. 763.

[18] Ibidem, p. 763.

[19] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, Paris, 1947, Introduction: Pour les Kabbalistes anciens, le processus cosmogonique commence par un acte dans lequel Dieu projette sa puissance créatrice hors de son propre Être dans l'espace. Chaque acte nouveau est une étape de plus dans l'extériorisation qui se développe "en accord avec la doctrine émanationiste du Néoplatonisme en ligne droite, de haut en bas. Il marque ainsi un processus strictement simple. Luria s'appuie sur la doctrine de Zimzum au sens de retraite, solitude, pour expliquer "que l'existence de l'univers est possible par un processus de contraction en Dieu".

[20] Jay Kinney, Some Kabbalistic ABC's in Gnosis No 3, p. 8.

[21] Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, Charleston, 1944, p. 747.

[22] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society, Inc. 1977, p. 115.

[23] Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, Charleston, 1944, p. 766.

[24] Richard Cavendish, Cabala, in the Encyclopedia of the Unexplained, p. 57-59.

[25] Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, Charleston, 1944, p. 762-763.

[26] Adolphe Franck, The Kabbalah, Bell Publishing Company, New York, 1940, p.103.

[27] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society, Inc., 1977.

[28] Henryi Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, Paris, 1947, Introduction.

[29] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, California, 90027, 1977, p. 115.

[30] Ibidem, p. 115.

[31] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society, Inc. Los Angeles, California, 90027, 1977, p. 116.

[32] Ibidem, p. 118.

[33] C. C. Zain, The Secret Tarot, The Church of Light, p. 27.

[34] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, 1957, p. 130.

[35] Ibidem, p. 133 note 2, and p. 135 note 4.

[36] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, 1967, p. 271.

[37] Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, The Philosophical Research Society, Inc. Los Angeles, California 90027, 1977, p. 74.

[38] Dion Fortune, The Mystical Qabalah, London, Williams and Norgate, 1957, p. 80.

[39] Ibidem, p. 60.

[40] Henri Serouya, La Kabbale, Grasset, 1967, p. 130.

[41] C. C. Zain, The Sacred Tarot, The Church of Light, Doctrine of Kabbalism, Serial No 48, p. 27.

Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p. 291.

[42] Dion Fortune, The Mystical Qabalah, p. 274.

[43] Dion Fortune, The Mystical Qabalah, p. 74.

[44] Robert Zoller, The Lost Key to Prediction, Inner Traditions International, 1947, p. 28. S.L. MacGregor Mathers, trans. The Kabbalah Unveiled, Routledge & Regan Paul, 1957, p, 210, notes.

[45] Dion Fortune, The Mystical Kabbale, London, William and Norgate, 1958, p. 252.

[46] Ibidem, p. 188.

[47] Ibidem, p. 190.

[48] Dion Fortune, The Mystical Qabalah, London, William and Norgate, 1958, p. 109.

[49] According to Dion Fortune, Kether -The Crown- is not in the head, but above the head, as the Sahamsara Chakra is in the aura above the head. (Cf. The Mystical Qabalah, p. 111). But my research demonstrates that God has his seat in the Third Ventricle, in the middle of our head.

[50] Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, 745.

TOC | Preface | Chapters: 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 11 12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19